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Eco-friendly diet slashes risk of an early death by a third, study suggests



By Emily Stearn, Health Reporter For Mailonline

18:13 11 Jun 2024, updated 18:18 11 Jun 2024



Eating for the planet could slash your risk of an early grave, if new research is to be believed. 

Experts discovered people who stuck to what is dubbed an eco-friendly diet were almost a third less likely to die prematurely. 

They also had a lower risk of every leading cause of death, including cancer, heart disease and even lung disease.

US researchers said this was likely down to eating highly processed food and a high fruit and veg intake boosting the immune system. 

The ‘planetary health diet’, published in The Lancet five years ago, is a plant-heavy and meat-light diet designed to lower disease risk and agriculture’s impact on climate change and the natural world.

Experts discovered people who stuck to an eco-friendly diet were almost a third less likely to die prematurely. They also had a lower risk of every leading cause of death, including cancer, heart disease and even lung disease

Study author Professor Walter Willett, an expert in epidemiology and nutrition at Harvard University said: ‘Changing how we eat can help slow climate change, and fortunately what’s healthiest for the planet is also best for us.

‘For every major cause of death we looked at, there was a lower risk in people with better adherence to the planetary health diet.’ 

He added: ‘Shifting how we eat can help slow the process of climate change. And what’s healthiest for the planet is also healthiest for humans.’ 

The diet is ‘flexitarian’ rather than solely vegetarian and recommends fruit and vegetables account for half of a person’s daily food intake. 

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Protein mainly comes from nuts, beans and lentils, with people advised to eat less than 50g a day each of eggs, fish, meat and sugar. 

By comparison, an average quarter-pound beef burger weighs 78g. 

The scientists, from Harvard University, tracked more than 200,000 healthy US adults over the course of three decades. 

They were scored on how closely their diets matched the planetary health one, based on how much they ate of 15 food groups.

These included vegetables, whole grains, dairy such as milk, cheese and yoghurt and chicken and other poultry. 

Over a follow-up period of 34 years, researchers recorded 54,536 deaths among the study group including more than 14,600 due to cancer and just over 13,700 attributed to cardiovascular diseases.

They found the 10 per cent of participants who most closely followed the diet had almost a third lower risk of premature death than those in the bottom 10 per cent.

They also had a 14 per cent lower risk of death associated with cardiovascular diseases, 10 per cent lower chance of cancer mortality and 47 per cent lower chance of dying from respiratory diseases.  

Writing in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers said the diet wasn’t just good for people, but the planet as well with adherence lowering the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by 29 per cent compared to an average diet. 

The food eaten by strict adherents also required 21 per cent lower fertiliser use.

It comes as data on Brits weekly food purchasing habits, gathered annually by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, also revealed in October that Brits are eating less meat, potatoes and bread than ever before. Meanwhile, rice and pasta have enjoyed massive booms. Alcohol consumption has also increased over time but this data only goes back to 1992
The DEFRA data showed that red meat consumption has plunged by up to 81 per cent since the 70s, while sales of poultry and fish have doubled. This chart shows how much meat Brits have purchased on average each week, the most recent data for 2022 shows a massive drop compared to historic levels (data doesn’t include fish)

Research has long estimated food production is responsible for around a quarter of humanity’s total global greenhouse gas emissions. 

Raising livestock for human consumption, for example, uses an enormous amount of agricultural land and contributes to deforestation, biodiversity loss and water pollution, experts say.

Emissions from cattle, sheep and goats generate methane, a greenhouse gas 80 times more powerful than carbon dioxide in warming the planet in the span of 20 years, according to the UN Environment Programme.  

Interest in primarily plant-based diet has soared in recent years, with vegans, who are on the extreme end of vegetarianism, citing its ethical, environmental or health reasons.

The NHS, however, advises that red meat — such as beef, lamb and pork — is a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals.

It suggests it can form part of a balanced diet, although the health service warns that eating more than 90 grams per day can raise the risk of bowel cancer

WHAT SHOULD A BALANCED DIET LOOK LIKE? 

Meals should be based on potatoes, bread, rice, pasta or other starchy carbohydrates, ideally wholegrain, according to the NHS

• Eat at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables every day. All fresh, frozen, dried and canned fruit and vegetables count

• Base meals on potatoes, bread, rice, pasta or other starchy carbohydrates, ideally wholegrain

• 30 grams of fibre a day: This is the same as eating all of the following: 5 portions of fruit and vegetables, 2 whole-wheat cereal biscuits, 2 thick slices of wholemeal bread and large baked potato with the skin on

• Have some dairy or dairy alternatives (such as soya drinks) choosing lower fat and lower sugar options

• Eat some beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other proteins (including 2 portions of fish every week, one of which should be oily)

• Choose unsaturated oils and spreads and consuming in small amounts

• Drink 6-8 cups/glasses of water a day

• Adults should have less than 6g of salt and 20g of saturated fat for women or 30g for men a day

Source: NHS Eatwell Guide  



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