Evaluation of a person-centred, nurse-led model of care delivering hepatitis C testing and treatment in priority settings: a mixed-methods evaluation of the Tasmanian Eliminate Hepatitis C Australia Outreach Project, 2020–2022 | BMC Public Health
World Health Organization. Global progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections, 2021. Geneva; 2021.
Trickey A, Fraser H, Lim AG, Peacock A, Colledge S, Walker JG, Leung J, Grebely J, Larney S, Martin NK, et al. The contribution of injection drug use to Hepatitis C virus transmission globally, regionally, and at country level: a modelling study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;4(6):435–44.
World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report, 2017. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.
Falade-Nwulia O, Suarez-Cuervo C, Nelson DR, Fried MW, Segal JB, Sulkowski MS. Oral direct-acting agent therapy for hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166(9):637–48.
Hernandez-Con P, Wilson DL, Tang H, Unigwe I, Riaz M, Ourhaan N, Jiang X, Song HJ, Joseph A, Henry L, et al. Hepatitis C cascade of care in the direct-acting antivirals era: a meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2023.
Australian Department of Health and Aged Care. About Medicare. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2022.
Australian Department of Health and Aged Care. PBS frequently asked questions. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2023.
Australian Government Department of Health. The pharmaceutical benefits scheme November 2015 – positive recommendations. Canberra; 2015.
Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, Matthews G, Martinello M, Dore G. Uptake of direct-acting antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C in Australia. J Viral Hepat. 2018;25(6):640–8.
Kwon JA, Dore GJ, Hajarizadeh B, Alavi M, Valerio H, Grebely J, Guy R, Gray RT. Australia could miss the WHO Hepatitis C virus elimination targets due to declining treatment uptake and ongoing burden of advanced liver disease complications. PLoS One. 2021;16(9):e0257369.
Burnet Institute, Kirby Institute. Australia’s progress towards hepatitis C elimination: annual report 2022. Melbourne: Burnet Institute; 2022.
Scott N, Sacks-Davis R, Wade AJ, Stoove M, Pedrana A, Doyle JS, Thompson AJ, Wilson DP, Hellard ME. Australia needs to increase testing to achieve hepatitis C elimination. Med J Aust. 2020;212(8):365–70.
Dawe J, Wilkinson AL, Asselin J, Carter A, Pedrana A, Traeger MW, Thomas AJ, Curtis M, Cooper M, Howell J, et al. Hepatitis C antibody testing among opioid agonist therapy recipients, Victoria, Australia, 2012 to 2020. Int J Drug Policy. 2022;104:103696.
Australian Government Department of Health. Fifth National Hepatitis C Strategy 2018–2022. Canberra: 2019.
Grebely J, Bruneau J, Bruggmann P, Harris M, Hickman M, Rhodes T, Treloar C. Elimination of hepatitis C virus infection among PWID: the beginning of a new era of interferon-free DAA therapy. Int J Drug Policy. 2017;47:26–33.
Norton BL, Fleming J, Bachhuber MA, Steinman M, DeLuca J, Cunningham CO, Johnson N, Laraque F, Litwin AH. High HCV cure rates for people who use drugs treated with direct acting antiviral therapy at an urban primary care clinic. Int J Drug Policy. 2017;47:196–201.
Madden A, Hopwood M, Neale J, Treloar C. Beyond interferon side effects: what residual barriers exist to DAA hepatitis C treatment for people who inject Drugs? PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0207226.
Marshall A, Grebely J, Dore G, Treloar C. Barriers and facilitators to engaging in hepatitis C management and DAA therapy among general practitioners and drug and alcohol specialists – the practitioner experience. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020;206:107705.
Lang K, Neil J, Wright J, Dell CA, Berenbaum S, El-Aneed A. Qualitative investigation of barriers to accessing care by people who inject drugs in Saskatoon, Canada: perspectives of service providers. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2013;8(1):35.
Bruggmann P, Litwin AH. Models of care for the management of Hepatitis C virus among people who inject Drugs: one size does not fit all. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(suppl2):56–S61.
Grebely J, Hajarizadeh B, Lazarus JV, Bruneau J, Treloar C. Elimination of hepatitis C virus infection among people who use drugs: ensuring equitable access to prevention, treatment, and care for all. Int J Drug Policy. 2019;72:1–10.
Aleman S, Söderholm J, Büsch K, Kövamees J, Duberg AS. Frequent loss to follow-up after diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection: a barrier towards the elimination of hepatitis C virus. Liver Int. 2020;40(8):1832–40.
Richmond JA, Gallagher L, McDonald L, O’Sullivan M, Fitzsimmons C, Pedrana A. Achieving hepatitis C elimination by using person-centered, nurse-led models of care: a discussion of four international case studies. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2020;43(4):303–9.
Bajis S, Grebely J, Cooper L, Smith J, Owen G, Chudleigh A, Hajarizadeh B, Martinello M, Adey S, Read P. Hepatitis C virus testing, liver disease assessment and direct-acting antiviral treatment uptake and outcomes in a service for people who are homeless in Sydney, Australia: the LiveRLife homelessness study. J Viral Hepat. 2019;26(8):969–79.
Harney BL, Whitton B, Lim C, Paige E, McDonald B, Nolan S, Pemberton D, Hellard ME, Doyle JS. Quantitative evaluation of an integrated nurse model of care providing hepatitis C treatment to people attending homeless services in Melbourne, Australia. Int J Drug Policy. 2019;72:195–8.
Harney BL, Brereton R, Whitton B, Pietrzak D, Paige E, Roberts SK, Birks S, Saraf S, Hellard ME, Doyle JS. Hepatitis C treatment in a co-located mental health and alcohol and drug service using a nurse‐led model of care. J Viral Hepatitis. 2021;28(5):771–8.
Morris L, Selvey L, Williams O, Gilks C, Kvassy A, Smirnov A. Hepatitis C cascade of care at an integrated community facility for people who inject drugs. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2020;114:108025.
Ferguson C, McCartney EM, Ralton L, Dawe J, Richmond J, Zobel J, Wigg A, Cock V, Tse EY, Rees T, et al. Point of care testing for Hepatitis C in mental health, prison and drug & alcohol settings. In: The International Liver Congress. London: EASL – European Association for the Study of the Liver; 2022.
Geoscience Australia. Earth sciences for Australia’s future. 2004.
Kirby Institute. HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible Infections in Australia: Annual surveillance report 2021. Sydney: Kirby Institute; 2021.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. National, state and territory population. ABS Website; 2022.
Kirby Institute. Monitoring Hepatitis C treatment uptake in Australia (issue 11). Sydney: The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales; 2021.
Cashin A, Stasa H, Gullick J, Conway R, Cunich M, Buckley T. Clarifying clinical nurse consultant work in Australia: a phenomenological study. Collegian. 2015;22(4):405–12.
Hughes E, Bassi S, Gilbody S, Bland M, Martin F. Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental Illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(1):40–8.
Ramachandran J, Budd S, Slattery H, Muller K, Mohan T, Cowain T, Tilley E, Baas A, Wigg L, Alexander J. Hepatitis C virus infection in Australian psychiatric inpatients: a multicenter study of seroprevalence, risk factors and treatment experience. J Viral Hepat. 2019;26(5):609–12.
StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 17. College Station: StataCorp; 2021.
QSR International. NVIVO-12. College Station: QSR International; 2018.
Ogrinc G, Davies L, Goodman D, Batalden P, Davidoff F, Stevens D. SQUIRE 2.0 (S tandards for QU ality I mprovement R eporting E xcellence): revised publication guidelines from a detailed consensus process. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2015;46(11):501–7.
Patridge EF, Bardyn TP. Research electronic data capture (REDCap). J Med Libr Assoc. 2018;106(1):142.
Byrne AL, Hegney D, Harvey C, Baldwin A, Willis E, Heard D, Judd J, Palmer J, Brown J, Heritage B, et al. Exploring the nurse navigator role: a thematic analysis. J Nurs Adm Manag. 2020;28(4):814–21.
Thomas DR. A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. Am J Eval. 2006;27(2):237–46.
National Health Medical Research Council. National statement on ethical conduct in human research 2007 (updated 2018). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2018.
Australian Department of Human Services. Medicare bulk billing. 2022.
O’Sullivan BG, Kippen R, Hickson H, Wallace G. Mandatory bulk billing policies may have differential rural effects: an exploration of Australian data. Rural Remote Health. 2022;22(1):7138.
Angeles MR, Crosland P, Hensher M. Challenges for medicare and universal health care in Australia since 2000. Med J Aust. 2023;218(7):322–9.
Australian Government Department of Health. Fifth National Hepatitis C Strategy 2018–2022. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2018.
Gastroenterological Society of Australia. Australian recommendations for the management of hepatitis C virus infection: a consensus statement (2022). Melbourne; 2022.
Day E, Hellard M, Treloar C, Bruneau J, Martin NK, Øvrehus A, Dalgard O, Lloyd A, Dillon J, Hickman M. Hepatitis C elimination among people who inject drugs: challenges and recommendations for action within a health systems framework. Liver Int. 2019;39(1):20–30.
Lazarus JV, Pericàs JM, Picchio C, Cernosa J, Hoekstra M, Luhmann N, Maticic M, Read P, Robinson EM, Dillon JF. We know DAAs work, so now what? Simplifying models of care to enhance the hepatitis C cascade. J Intern Med. 2019;286(5):503–25.
Harney BL, Whitton B, Paige E, Brereton R, Weiss R, Membrey D, Wade AJ, Iser D, Kemp W, Roberts SK. A multi-site, nurse‐coordinated hepatitis C model of care in primary care and community services in Melbourne, Australia. Liver Int. 2021.
Read P, Lothian R, Chronister K, Gilliver R, Kearley J, Dore GJ, van Beek I. Delivering direct acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C to highly marginalised and current drug injecting populations in a targeted primary health care setting. Int J Drug Policy. 2017;47:209–15.
Mason K, Dodd Z, Guyton M, Tookey P, Lettner B, Matelski J, Sockalingam S, Altenberg J, Powis J. Understanding real-world adherence in the directly acting antiviral era: a prospective evaluation of adherence among people with a history of drug use at a community-based program in Toronto, Canada. Int J Drug Policy. 2017;47:202–8.
O’Sullivan M, Jones AM, Gage H, Jordan J, MacPepple E, Williams H, Verma S. ITTREAT (Integrated Community Test – Stage – TREAT) hepatitis C service for people who use drugs: real-world outcomes. Liver Int. 2020;40(5):1021–31.
Kattakuzhy S, Gross C, Emmanuel B, Teferi G, Jenkins V, Silk R, Akoth E, Thomas A, Ahmed C, Espinosa M. Expansion of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection by task shifting to community-based nonspecialist providers: a nonrandomized clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(5):311–8.
Pourmarzi D, Smirnov A, Hall L, Thompson H, FitzGerald G, Rahman T. Enablers and barriers for the provision of community-based HCV treatment: a case study of a real-world practice. J Viral Hepat. 2020;27(5):484–96.
Richmond JA, Wallace J. Implementation of hepatitis C cure in Australia: one year on. J Virus Erad. 2018;4(2):115–7.
Pedrana A, Munari S, Stoové M, Doyle J, Hellard M. The phases of hepatitis C elimination: achieving WHO elimination targets. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021;6(1):6–8.
Klepac P, Metcalf CJE, McLean AR, Hampson K. Towards the endgame and beyond: complexities and challenges for the elimination of infectious diseases. Royal Soc. 2013;368:20120137.