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These diets could reduce CVD risk for adults with type 1 diabetes

These diets could reduce CVD risk for adults with type 1 diabetes



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Key takeaways:

  • The Mediterranean and DASH diets emphasize plant-based foods, lean protein and healthy fat intake.
  • The diets were associated with changes in blood markers of CVD.

CHICAGO — For adults with type 1 diabetes, the Mediterranean and DASH diets could help reduce the risk for CVD, according to research presented at NUTRITION.

Both diets emphasize plant-based foods, lean proteins, healthy fats and low intake of sugars and processed foods, Arpita Basu, PhD, RD, an associate professor in the department of kinesiology and nutrition sciences at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas, and colleagues reported.



Mediterranean diet

For adults with type 1 diabetes, the Mediterranean and DASH diets could help reduce the risk for CVD, according to research presented at NUTRITION. Image: Adobe Stock

“Type 1 diabetes increases the risk of developing CVD, which raises the likelihood of heart attacks, strokes and other serious health complications,” Basu said in a press release. “We wanted to find out how people’s regular eating habits affected blood inflammatory markers that predict CVD risk in adults with type 1 diabetes.”

The researchers conducted a 6-year study including 1,255 adults — 692 without diabetes and 563 with type 1 diabetes. They used a food frequency questionnaire to calculate nutrient intake over the study period and assess how well the participants adhered to the Mediterranean diet, the DASH diet and the alternative healthy eating index (AHEI), which are commonly used in CVD management.

They additionally analyzed blood markers that they said clinicians often use to determine inflammation and CVD risk: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine (Hcy) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1).

“Both DASH and Mediterranean diets revealed protective associations, which means these dietary patterns can make a difference when consumed regularly,” Basu said. “Our findings are more practical than those from clinical studies of these diets because those usually manipulate dietary behavior in a way that may not be sustainable in daily life.”

The researchers found that adults with type 1 diabetes typically consume a high-fat diet, which they said was mostly a result of reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing animal protein foods that are high in cholesterol and saturated fats.

After adjustment for age, BMI, sex, physical activity, BP and more, those who adhered most closely to the Mediterranean and DASH diets had lower PAI-1 and Hcy levels, but the AHEI diet showed no connections.

“There is an urgent need to address dietary quality in adults with type 1 diabetes,” Basu said. “In a clinical setting, assessing dietary intakes using the DASH and Mediterranean dietary checklists could be an effective way to identify gaps and improve intakes. Specific foods that are part of these dietary patterns, such as olives and nuts in the Mediterranean diet, could be added to the diet even if the entire diet cannot be altered.”

References:

  • Basu A. Longitudinal associations of healthy dietary patterns with biomarkers of inflammation and atherosclerosis in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Presented at: NUTRITION; June 29-July 2, 2024.
  • Research uncovers heart-protective eating patterns for type 1 diabetes. https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/1048928. Published June 30, 2024. Accessed June 30, 2024.



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